A: If the owner of the car gave permission to the driver to drive it, the owner is liable, and if the owner was insured, then, yes, you would set up a claim with the owner's insurance company. If you don't know if the owner gave permission, you would set up the claim anyway, and then the issue will be sorted out. If there is liability, but the insurance company denies the claim or does not offer enough money to settle it, then you may sue both the owner and the driver.
A: I can answer your first question, but your second question makes no sense. If you "beat" a criminal charge due to acquittal, dismissal by the Court, or the prosecution dropping the charge, and without a plea bargain, you may have potential claims for money damages for false arrest/false imprisonment and/or malicious prosecution, as well as other possible grounds - but you do NOT automatically have such potential claims.
There would have to be proof of lack of probable cause for the arrest and/or for the prosecution. Probable cause exists if the facts would give rise to a reasonable belief that the accused is probably guilty. Even if a person is 100% innocent, a law enforcement officer might still have probable cause, in which case, it's not an actionable false arrest Therefore, you need to consult an attorney handling police misconduct cases to determine if you have valid and worthwhile potential claims.
A: The ACLU takes a very limited number of police misconduct cases, without charging the client. Otherwise, seek a consultation with any attorney handling police misconduct cases. Depending on the facts, you might have the type of case that an attorney can handle on a contingency fee basis (meaning the attorney gets paid from any recovery). Or you might not. To make a determination of whether the case is worthwhile, the attorney must review multiple documents and extensively confer with you and any important witnesses.